To understand Canadian politics, you need to understand how the entire system works, and the history of it. Canada has a Parliamentary democracy, otherwise known as a “representative democracy” where you, the electorate have a say who represents you by means of voting for one party or another. By voting for a “party” you relegate yourself to being governed, essentially allowing yourself to be abused by those in power.
Parliament consists of the Governor General, who represents the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Commons. The Governor General acts on the advice of the Prime Minister, and Cabinet. Senators are appointed by the Governor General, also on the advice of the Prime Minister.
In 1867, Canada had a population of just 3,230,000, with only 361,028 registered voters. By 2011, the population was 34,278,400, with the number of registered voters at 24,257,592.